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Tourism Academics

Chapter –TWO

Trekking is combination of hiking and walking activity in which people take multi-days trips in rural, under development area. In another words, Trekking is making a journey/trip on foot, especially to hike through mountainous areas often for multiple days and along lovely mountains, villages and enjoying nature and/or close contact with people in mountain, Villages where lifestyle sometimes is unchanged since many generations. Trekking is also done in risky mountain areas so it will help to gain more adventurous build up capacity to the trekkers.

Trekker will get knowledge that is more adventurous with the real life scenario in mountain areas or in remote area. In case of Nepal , Nepal has many places where people can easily do trek for 3 days up to 3 months. To be a trekker they must have to these things that are Budget, Holiday, willing to do adventure.

Trekking will not done free by the trekking company so that they pay the expenses during their trekking trip and they must have a holiday for such trip and last one is trekker must be capable to do a trek and he/she have to willing to do adventure work.


2.2. Types of Trek

A. Tea House Trek

B. Camping Trek


A.    Camping Trek

Camping trek is little sophisticated  trek than trek house trek because in Camping trek, Trekking organizer or we will carry  the all things required  for trek from Kathmandu or that places where all the necessary items are available. All things (all food items and Tent for sleep) will be always with the trekker during trek trips. Trekking will sleep in the tents and their staff (if any).  Their staff will prepare meals as per in the menu provided in advance.


B.     Tea House Trek

Tea house trek means doing trek by eating and sleeping at Tea/ guesthouse where the Teahouse are available for sleep and already setup by the villager for providing the service to the clients.  Every day trekker will get the tea house to eat and sleep.  In comparison to camping trek, teahouse trek is little cheep. But both trek are done in the same place only different is that camping trekker’s get own prepare food by own office cook where as teahouse trekker’s will get to eat food which prepared by tea house’s staff.

To do a both trek they must be have trekking permit according to Nepal Government Rule.   In addition, they must have one staff as guide or porter to help them during the trip.

Trekking can be done anywhere in the world. Certain areas are particularly popular with trekkers, including mountainous regions such as the Himalayas in Asia (Nepal) and the Andes in South America. Treks also have been organized in other less-visited areas on almost every continent. Trekking destinations high altitude will be depends on the trekking destination chosen by clients. In Nepal trekking can be done from 500 meters up to 6000 meters from sea level. But you can find list of trekking high altitude from our website and each trekking destination with trek grade. About the trek grade some highlight are as follows:


2.3. Trek Grading system:

A.    Easy:

Trekkers without previous experience are offered a diverse range of easy treks. The easy trek involves no difficult climbing or ascents to high altitudes and is usually less than a week suitable for everyone. However, it is not loss of height means loss of interest while lower altitude treks often provide colorful horizons of a whole series of mountain ranges. The easy treks are considered of full access of teahouses and low altitude.


B.     Moderate

Medium treks are more challenging than easy and are suitable for any trekker looking for something a bit more energetic. In general they are longer than roughly 10 days walking up and down climb to higher altitudes. At this altitude, you will be rewarded with close-up views of bigger mountains. The medium treks are considered of full access of higher altitudes


C.    Strenuous

Trekkers with some previous mountain walking experience should only undertake medium-hard treks. These treks ascend to high altitudes (up to 5000m) and involve some steep climbing, although it is never necessary to use ropes.


D.    Difficult

Hard treks are suitable only for real adventure seekers. Some steep ascents to high altitudes with the possibility of rope climbing are involved in this category. Trekkers will need stamina to complete one of these wilderness treks as they might lasts for 20-40 days. Required equipment  or Things needed to be carried on The Trek/ Trekking Equipment Checklist


2.4. Required equipment:

Some things depending on temperatures and the phase of development of the trekking area:
commonly following equipment are needed to do the trek with our problems but without some of them you can do a trek, but it is not necessary to collect all the thing but if you are able to bring or bought all things it will be good for you. for details, when you chose the trip with us , we will suggest you which equipment are to be brought in the trekking from your side and what we provide to you during the trip ?


A. Personal:

-A pair of hiking/trekking boots

-A pair of slippers

-Several pairs of woolen socks and cotton socks

-One light long underwear bottom

-One medium long underwear bottom

-A pair of climbing and pile pants

-Two medium poly pro shirts

-One light woolen/fleece sweater

-One pile jacket - One down vest

-One down sweater/jacket

-A pair of light wind Gore-Tex jacket and pant

-A pair of woolen hat and Sun hat

-A pair of glacier glasses

-A pair of Gore-Tex glove shells with liner or ski gloves

-A pair of woolen gloves

-A Swiss Army knife ( if possible)

-A trekking pack of 3000 cubic inches capacity

-Sun screen lotion SPF 10 to 30 and sun screen stick SPF 10 to 30

 Books, mp3 player (option)

-An one-liter water bottle

-A pair of trekking poles (opt)

-One torch with enough sets of batteries

-Two large and strong waterproof duffel bags with lock (17x13x32 inch)

toilet paper (opt)


B. Toiletry items:

Towel, biodegradable soaps, pre-moistened novelettes, wash cloth, sunscreen, lip balm, and any additional personal items such as toothbrush, comb, etc.

Personal first aid kit box:

Be advised to check with your doctor. Suggestions: aspirin or ibuprofen, PEPTONE BISMOLE, Band aids/bandages, moleskin, scissors, tweezers, tropical antiseptic, anti-acid tablets, laxative, water purification tablets.


C. Other necessary items:

Photo equipment with plenty of memory cards/SD cards and spare batteries, reading/writing materials, postcards of hometown and/or photos of home and family to share with local people, safety pins, sewing kit, zip lock bags for small items, large plastic bags to line duffel and protect any down items.


2.5. Altitude Sickness

Altitude sickness is also known as ‘Acute mountain sickness’ (AMS), altitude illness, hypobaropathy, “The altitude bends”, or soroche. Altitude sickness is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude. It commonly occurs above 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). It presents as a collection of nonspecific symptoms, acquired at high altitude or in low pressure, resembling a case of “flu, carbon monoxide poisoning or a HANGOVER”. It is hard to determine who will be affected by altitude sickness, as there are no specific factors that correlate with a susceptibility to altitude sickness. However, most people can ascend to 2,400 meters (8,000 ft) without difficulty.


There exists no reliable method whereby those who are likely to get-AMS- could be detected and warned in advance. Moreover, there is, yet neither preventive medicine nor treatment that can be termed as efficient. Therefore it is very important to know the symptoms.


2.6. Signs and symptoms

People have different susceptibilities to altitude sickness; for some otherwise healthy people, acute altitude sickness can begin to appear at around 2,000 meters (6,600 ft) above sea level, such as at many mountain ski resorts, equivalent to a pressure of 80 kilopascals (0.79 tam). This is the
most frequent type of altitude sickness encountered. Symptoms often manifest themselves six to ten hours after ascent and generally subside in one to two days, but they occasionally develop into the more serious conditions. Symptoms include headache, fatigue, stomach illness, dizziness, and sleep disturbance. Exertion aggravates the symptoms.

The Lake Louise assessment system of AMS is based on a self-report questionnaire as well as a quick clinical assessment

Those individuals with the lowest initial partial pressure of end-tidal pCO2 (the lowest concentration of carbon dioxide at the end of the respiratory cycle, a measure of a higher alveolar ventilation) and corresponding high oxygen saturation levels tend to have a lower incidence
of acute mountain sickness than those with high end-tidal pCO2 and low oxygen saturation levels.

2.7. Primary symptoms

Headaches are the primary symptom used to diagnose altitude sickness, although a headache is also a symptom of dehydration. A headache occurring at an altitude above 2,400 meters (7,900 ft) – a pressure of 76 kilopascals (0.75 TAM) – combined with any one or more of the following symptoms, may indicate altitude sickness:

Lack of appetite, nausea, or vomiting

-Fatigue or weakness

-Dizziness or lightheadedness

-Peripheral edema (swelling of hands, feet, and face)


-Pins and needles

-Shortness of breath upon exertion


-Persistent rapid pulse



-General malaise


2.8. Severe symptoms

-Symptoms that may indicate life-threatening altitude sickness include:

-Pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs)

-Symptoms similar to bronchitis

-Persistent dry cough


-Shortness of breath even when resting

-Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)

-Headache that does not respond to analgesics

-Unsteady gait

-Gradual loss of consciousness

-Increased nausea

-Retinal hemorrhage

The most serious symptoms of altitude sickness arise from edema (fluid accumulation in the tissues of the body). At very high altitude, humans can get either high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). The physiological cause of altitude-induced edema is not conclusively established. It is currently believed, however, that HACE is caused by local vasodilatation of cerebral blood vessels in response to hypoxia, resulting in greater blood flow and, consequently, greater capillary pressures.

On the other hand, HAPE may be due to general vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation (normally a response to regional ventilation-perfusion mismatches) which, with constant or increased cardiac output, also leads to increases in capillary pressures. For those suffering HACE, DEXAMETHASONE may provide temporary relief from symptoms in order to keep descending under their own power. 

HAPE can progress rapidly and is often fatal. Symptoms include fatigue, severe dispend at rest, and cough that is initially dry but may progress to produce pink, frothy sputum. Descent to lower altitudes alleviates the symptoms of HAPE.

HACE is a life-threatening condition that can lead to coma or death. Symptoms include headache, fatigue, visual impairment, bladder dysfunction, bowel dysfunction, loss of coordination, paralysis on one side of the body, and confusion. Descent to lower altitudes may save those afflicted with HACE.


3.0. Causes

Climbers on Mount Everest often experience altitude sickness.

As altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains practically unchanged up to 21,000 meters (70,000 ft). Thermos of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen are very similar and thus no change occurs in the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen until stratospheric heights.

Dehydration due to the higher rate of water vapor lost from the lungs at higher altitudes may contribute to the symptoms of altitude sickness

The rate of ascent, altitude attained, amount of physical activity at high altitude, as well as individual susceptibility, is contributing factors to the onset and severity of high-altitude illness.

Altitude sickness usually occurs following a rapid ascent and can usually be prevented by ascending slowly. In most of these cases, the symptoms are temporary and usually abate as altitude acclimatization occurs. However, in extreme cases, altitude sickness can be fatal.


3.1. Prevention

Ascending slowly is the best way to avoid altitude sickness. Avoiding strenuous activity such as skiing, hiking, etc. in the first 24 hours at high altitude reduces the symptoms of AMS. Alcohol and sleeping pills are respiratory depressants, and thus slow down the acclimatization process and should be avoided. Alcohol also tends to cause dehydration and exacerbates AMS. Thus, avoiding alcohol consumption in the first 24–48 hours at a higher altitude is optimal.


3.7. Treatment

The only reliable treatment and in many cases the only option available is to descend. Attempts to treat or stabilize the patient  at altitude are dangerous unless highly controlled and with good medical facilities. However, the following treatments have been used when the patient's location and circumstances permit:

Oxygen may be used for mild to moderate AMS below 3,700 meters (12,000 ft) and is commonly provided by physicians at mountain resorts. Symptoms abate in 12–36 hours without the need to descend.


For more serious cases of AMS, or where rapid descent is impractical, a Gamow bag, a portable plastic hyperbaric chamber inflated with a foot pump, can be used to reduce the effective altitude by as much as 1,500 m (5,000 ft). A Gamow bag is generally used only as an aid to evacuate severe AMS patients, not to treat them at altitude.

ACETAZOLAMIDE 250 mg twice daily dosing assists in AMS treatment by quickening altitude acclimatization. A study by the Denali Medical Research Project concluded: "In established cases of acute mountain sickness, treatment with relieves symptoms, improves arterial oxygenation, and prevents further impairment of pulmonary gas exchange."

The folk remedy for altitude sickness   in  EcuadorPeru  and  Bolivia  is a tea made from the coca plant. See mate de cocaSteroids can be used to treat the symptoms of pulmonary or cerebral edema, but do not treat the underlying AMS.

Two studies in 2012 showed that Ibuprofen 600 milligrams three times daily were effective at decreasing the severity and incidence of AMS. But it was not clear if this affected HAPE or HACE.


2.8. How to open/Registration procedures of trekking agency in Nepal?


1. Apply for license:

Person interested to do the work of travel agency can apply for the license to the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation (MOTCA).

2. Issuance of license:

MOTCA studies/analyzes the application and the related documents. If the ministry (Tourism Industry Division under MOTCA) feels viable to give the license, it issues the license by collecting NPR 15000.

3. Validity and Renewal of license

-License is valid for 5yrs.

-Before the validity of the license expires, it has to be renewed by depositing NPR 10000.

-Late fee NPR 5000 will be added if the renewed is done within first three months from the expiry date.

-Late fee NPR 10000 will be added if the renewal is done within second three months from the expiry date.

-License is cancelled if someone fails to renew it within 6 months from the date of expiry.

4. Provision regarding company registration and bank guarantee:

-A firm or company should be registered having paid up capital RS 600000.

-For the assurance, trekking agency has to deposit NPR 200000 respectively as bank guarantee in the name of MOTCA.

5. Contract should be done:

-License owner should have a contract with the staff for the service period, before sending him/her out with the tourist.

6.  Remuneration of the staff:

-Remuneration should be given to the leader and the staffs going with the tourist. I.E

-Up to 3700m-leader-minimum of NPR300 and staff minimum of NPR 250.

-Above 3700m-Leader-minimum of NPR 350 and staff-minimum of NPR 300.

7. No selling or transfer of equipment without the permission:

-Equipment bought obtaining special subsidy from the government should not be sold or transferred without the permission of the government.

8. Report submission:

-The report of the business transaction should be submitted to the MOTCA by the license owner in every 6 months.

-Transactions between shrawan1-poush ends should be submitted within 35 days from POUSH end.

-Transaction between Magh1- ASHAD ends should be submitted within 35 days from ASHAD end.

9. Can give directives:

-MOTCA can give any kind of directive at any times to the license owner of travel agency. The directives should be followed by the owner, as it is his/her responsibility.

10. Script of
the forms:

-Forms can be
printed in English as per need.

* Fees
and Remuneration need to be updated


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